By F. K. Sully (Auth.)
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Additional resources for Motor Vehicle Mechanic's Textbook
In the usual system a hydraulic pump, driven by a belt from the crankshaft pulley, has an integral reservoir with filter and pressure regulating valve and can deliver fluid at some 7-14 MPa. Fluid pressure can be applied via the control valve to one side or the other of a double-acting hydraulic cylinder, whilst the fluid displaced from the opposite side returns to the reservoir. High-pressure hoses connect the pump to the control valve and ram. Early arrangements used a separate ram acting on the steering linkage, but modern car systems incorporate the hydraulic cylinder in the steering box.
As coil springs are normally of the same gauge and form throughout, a rising rate can only be achieved by the geometry of the suspension lever or by the helper principle. A rising rate is inherent with a simple air strut, but the static deflection would alter with the temperature of the contained air. 4 Rubber springs Rubber bushes and mountings act to some extent as springs and are widely used to isolate vibration and road noise. For suspension systems these flexible connections must provide compliance for any divergence of movement arcs without permitting inaccurate geometry.
The penalty for using an anti-roll bar is the increased rate for single-wheel bump and rebound. 10 Suspension geometry When the vehicle is cornering, centrifugal force acts on the sprung mass against the resistance of the suspension springs and roll bars. The amount of roll depends upon the stiffness of the springs, the width of their base and the position of the roll axis - a longitudinal axis joining the front and rear roll centres. The location of a roll centre is determined entirely by the suspension design.