By S R de Groot; P Mazur; S R Degroot

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005 . 005 H-output . H-evaporation . 005 100 time {s} Fig. 17. Heating from 90 C, boiling at 100 C and supplying steam to the resistor. Right arrow: mass ﬂow load. Left arrow: mass ﬂow load and evaporation. 01 100 time {s} Fig. 18. Action of the controller: left is water ﬂow, right the water level. 7 Units and overvalues in thermodynamics The determination of units of measurement in thermodynamics and thermal engineering is by no means trivial and will be considered here. In principle we have three units, namely 1.

18. We can visualize exergy as an accountant’s reserve for the cost of disposing of machinery at the end of their useful life. Here it is the energy minus the entropy times the temperature of the environment into which it has to be deposited. Obviously, there is no diﬀerence between exergy and energy for non-thermal domains where entropy content is zero. The notion of exergy is very useful where there are combined thermal and electrical or mechanical considerations such as in heating systems. Running costs for such systems should be invoiced for their exergy content.

2) where u is internal energy density and v is volume density. In so-called incompressible hydraulics or hydrostatics, one usually disregards the internal energy U and exploits only the pV part; this extends to lubrication theory and hydrostatic engineering of small gaps. If we want to proceed to a BG representation of hot ﬂuid pipes, it is best to use a pseudo BG, with pressure and temperature as eﬀorts, and mass ﬂow and enthalpy ﬂux as ﬂows; so it is, strictly, a pseudo vector BG. To Thoma’s knowledge, this was ﬁrst done by Karnopp (1979), almost 30 years ago.