The Greening of the Automotive Industry by G. Calabrese

By G. Calabrese

An exam of the greening of the automobile by means of the trail dependence of nations and carmakers' trajectories. 3 resources of course dependency may be detected: company versions, purchaser attitudes, and coverage rules. the auto is altering and the race in the direction of substitute using platforms has started!

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The Greening of the Automotive Industry

An exam of the greening of the car via the trail dependence of nations and carmakers' trajectories. 3 assets of direction dependency might be detected: enterprise types, client attitudes, and coverage laws. the auto is altering and the race in the direction of substitute riding platforms has began!

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The question is whether the changeover will culminate in the coexistence of the current ways in which automotives are used or in the formation of a new strong coalition, such as the one between carmakers and oil companies that led to the triumph of the ICE standard at the start of the twentieth century (Freyssenet, 2009). A new major role could be taken by the producers of biofuels, electricity or hydrogen. This chapter has a further four sections. The first is dedicated to current technological trajectories, highlighting the costs, opportunities and industrial repercussions of each option.

The isolated and top-down experience of California is particularly significant. California implemented a legislation that made it compulsory for carmakers to sell at least 2 per cent Zero Emission Vehicles by 1997, rising to 15 per cent in 2003, but the mandate was gradually reduced and it disappeared in 1998. Nevertheless, most of the considerations related to the development of AVs and their successful placement on the market undoubtedly depend on fuel prices and state intervention. In July 2008, gasoline reached an all-time peak of about US$150 per barrel in the USA, but five months later its price was 75 per cent lower.

The various technological trajectories co-evolve/ compete, and the established paths are self-reinforced through learning processes (Dosi, 1982). The best solution has not yet arisen and technological co-evolution can favour investment sharing. ICE performance is essential in CNG and biofuel vehicles, in HEVs, and in hydrogen vehicles without fuel cells. Gas storage systems are similar in LPG, CNG and hydrogen vehicles, and can be used both on board the vehicle and at filling stations. Electric storage system batteries are common to electric, hybrid and fuel cell vehicles.

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